Criminal Justice Glossary.
Samenow's Inside the Criminal Mind.
Brian Innes's The Body in Question: Exploring the Cutting Edge of Forensic Science.
Personality Psychology Psychological research methods.
Psychology books: Know How: Guided Programs for Inventing Your Own Best Future by Leslie Cameron-Bandler. Nature of Prejudice by Gordon W. Allport. Learned Optimism by Martin E. P. Seligman. Pessimism (defensive) (Norem).
Introduction to Political Science.
Political Science Glossary.
USA Modern History: Challenges for freedpeople after the Civil War. Challenges by workers to industrialization. Populist reformers. USA Modern History Glossary.
|Related: Death and Dying. Ecology. Enneagram. Evolution.|
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|Glossary: A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z.|
In the late-19th century, the U.S. fostered industrial expansion, technological advancements, and commercialization.
The working class challenged the expanding economic and political order,
trying to impose their vision of a more fair and equitable America:
Initially, arrogant industrialists and politicians collaborated to use police support (sometimes violent) to support the factory bosses and break strikes.
Eventually, after over a century, the worker does see huge benefits, resulting from the workers' protests that began at the end of the 19th century and that include:
|1865||Civil War ends.|
|1866||NLU (National Labor Union):
members could be farmers or factory workers;
promoted support for:
|1867||The Grange (begun by a farmer (Kelly)): farmers' cooperative to:
|1869||Knights of Labor began in Philadelphia by Uriah Stephens & tailors; committed to:
|1870s||Increased use of machines reduced industry's demand for "willing men".|
|1875||Start of Carnegie steel mills, with eventual vertical integration so that Carnegie controlled the extraction and shipping of ore, coke, and limestone, as well as the production and marketing of steel.|
|1877||1-in-7 worked in the railroad industry. Great labor uprising: first strike in US history when the railroad required longer hours for 10% less pay.|
|1878||Greenback Labor party, which led to Populist party.
Excluded women and African Americans.
Employers manipulated the workers through their ethnic, religious, and racial prejudices.
|1880||Challenged by cheap immigrant labor (up to half a million immigrant laborers per year). In 1880s: increasing opposition to Chinese by job-hunting whites.|
|1880s||Taylor and other efficiency experts shaved factory costs, which often included getting more work for the same pay and reducing the number of employees needed to accomplish the same ends as before.|
|1882||Congress's Chinese Exclusion Act, engineered partly by the Knights of Labor and the Workingman's party of California.|
|1882||Challenge: Rockefeller petrol (Standard Oil Trust): horizontal integration.|
|1884||Haymarket bombing. 8 anarchists arrested and sentenced to death. Demoralized labor. Demise of Knights of Labor.|
|1886||Gompers found AFL for skilled workers to demand:
|1889||Emma Goldman (age 20) commits herself to being an Anarchist.
In addition to promoting sexual liberation for women, encouraged:
|1890||United Mine Workers: a union of radical labor.|
|early 1890s||Populist (peoples') party formed, combining: urban and rural, male and female,
agricultural and industrial workers. Missions:
|1892||Steel workers strike following wage cuts. Troops escorted strike-breaking workers into the mill. The strike ended with strike-breakers taking the jobs, mill workforce being cut by 25%, and reduction of the strike-breakers' wages.|
|1892||Miners (gold, silver, copper) walked off the job in response to wage cutting. After strike-breakers were brought in, the srikers blew up the mines, but were captured and defeated. 1893: Formation of Western Federation of Miners.|
|1893||Worst nationwide depression to date; 20% of workers lost their jobs.|
|1894||Pullman workers' strike (led by Eugene V. Debs, who founded the American Railway Union the previous year) after their wages were cut by a third. President Cleveland declared the strike was interfering with U.S. mail delivery and executed an injunction for the strikers to return to work.|
|1901||Assassination of President McKinley by an anarchist.|
|1905||IWW (Industrial Workers of the World) founded by socialist and labor militants. Open to all. Included women, African Americans, immigrants, and the unskilled.|
|1906||Upton Sinclair's The Jungle revealed squalor of meat-packing plants. Led to the Pure Food and Drug Act.|
|1909||Garment workers' strike for:
|1911||Triangle Shirtwaist Company fire. 146 women died and were perceived as having been murdered by the Company.|
|1900-1920||Debs ran as socialist party candidate for congress.|
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