Introduction to Criminal Behavior.
by Wayne W. Bennett.
The Body in Question.
- Criminal Investigation: An Overview.
- Documenting the Scene: Note Taking, Photography and Sketching.
- Forensics/Physical Evidence.
- Obtaining Information.
- Identifying and Arresting Suspects.
- Death Investigations.
- Assault, Domestic Violence, Stalking and Elder Abuse.
- Sex Offenses.
- Crimes against Children.
- Larceny/Theft, Fraud, White Collar Crime and Environmental Crime.
- Motor Vehicle Theft.
- Computer Crime.
- Organized Crime, Bias/Hate Crime and Ritualistic Crime.
- Gang Related Crime.
- Illegal Drugs and Terrorism.
- Writing the Reports, Preparing for and Presenting Cases in Court.
[Thanks for visiting.]
Notebook by J. Zimmerman on Criminal Behavior Class (Cabrillo College in Spring 2006)
Instructor Scott Phelps
Table of Contents:
- Feb 7th, 2006: Orientation to course.
- Feb 9th, 2006: Introduction to how and why a person becomes a criminal.
Psychopathic personality type.
- Feb 14th, 2006: Early theories of criminal causation.
- 1. Classical school: Cesare Beccaria.
- 2. Positive school: Cesare Lombroso.
- Feb 16th, 2006: Positive school.
- Feb 21st, 2006. Positive school (continued).
- Feb 23rd, 2006: Current-day theories from the positive school.
- Feb 28th, 2006: Psychogenic theories: intellectual, emotional, motivational.
- March 2nd, 2006: Data.
- March 7th, 2006: Importance of first years of life.
- March 9th, 2006: Cause and prevention of antisocial behavior.
- March 14th, 2006: Lack of child supervision as a major cause of antisocial behavior.
- March 16th, 2006: Families and Fatherhood
- March 21st, 2006: Need for communication within the family.
- March 23rd, 2006: Discipline.
- March 28th, 2006: Discipline (continued).
- March 30th, 2006: Child abuse.
- April 4th, 2006: Child abuse (continued).
- April 6th, 2006: Physical abuse, psychological abuse, child neglect.
- Physical abuse
- Psychological abuse
- Child neglect
Feb 7th, 2006: Orientation to course.
[Based on handout and informal verbal info from a couple students.]
- Course description.
- Grading will be on midterm (1/3), final (1/3), and notebook of notes (on lectures,
Criminal Behavior Videos,
guest speakers, field trips, and articles).
- An extra-credit current-event notebook can be submitted.
- Lecture outline has two sections: (i) How and why does a
person become a criminal;(ii) Types of criminal behavior.
Feb 9th, 2006: Introduction to how and why a person becomes a criminal.
- Product and process of social interaction.
- Occurs only in society: an isolated person along cannot be a deviant.
- Varies over time (e.g., Copernicus and Galileo were once
thought deviant), between countries (e.g., legal age in USA versus France),
between states and counties (e.g. brothels in Nevada).
Extradition (such as for deviancy) occurs only when:
- Set out in treaties between countries
- Where the crime and resulting penalty are seen as equal in the two countries.
The psychopathic personality type:
Is found in over 85% of people in prison today. (In 1970s only 30% of those in Soledad were psychopaths.)
Shows little remorse; insensitive to others' rights.
A continuum in the amount of hatred in their deeds.
Refuses to take responsibility for behavior. Heartless. Lack of empathy or response.
Some add deliberate hurt to their victims. Hurting others makes them feel good.
Are generated by being raised without affection (physical, verbal).
Psychopath (from psychotic ~ mentally ill): also called
sociopath (~society behavior, 1970s) and "anti-social personality disorder"
Video on Ed Kemper (see notes on
Criminal Behavior Videos).
Feb 14th, 2006: Early theories of criminal causation.
1. Classical school: Cesare Beccaria.
in 1764, with Beccaria's publication of his brief treatise Dei Delitti
e delle Pene (On Crimes and Punishments). A clear and lively
work of advocacy to alleviate unjust suffering, as well as provide theory.
- After 18 months, the book was in its 6th edition.
- Fit in with the enlightened Europeans' discontent with their monarchies and
arguments were the first ever made against the death penalty.
treatise was the first to advocate reform of the criminal law system,
arguing that it should conform to rational principles.
- The changes that resulted:
- Removed discretionary sentencing from judges; replaced by fixed sentencing.
- Introduced incarceration as an alternative to the previous punishments of
beheading or other death, torture, corporal punishment, or an enforced fine.
"The criminal possesses reason and free will. The major reason for his
negative behavior communally is his will to commit crime. ... He is
basically no different from the non-offender. He exercises freedom and is
capable of choice."
- Beccaria's belief in this will to crime, led to his belief in long as
well as fixed punishments.
- Chain gangs and warehousing are part of the Classical school, as was isolation
in prison (until it was found to cause mental breakdown).
- Overly harsh punishments are intended to make the person "unwilling" to persue crime.
2. Positive school: Cesare Lombroso.
- Began in 1876, with Lombroso's publication of The Atlas of Criminal Man.
"Criminality is determined almost entirely by emotional, environmental, or
physical factors that the potential criminal could not control ... offenders
are different from non-offenders in more ways than merely 'the will to
- Lombroso believed in rehabilitation and treatment.
- The changes that resulted:
justice systems. 1899 Cook County (Illinois) was first in USA; had
sheltered trials, separate laws, removal of juveniles from unfit homes to foster homes.
- Probation: opportunity to correct behavior in the community without going to jail.
- Parole: opportunity to serve last part of prison sentence on the street though
with guidance and under supervision.
- Outpatient therapy: though that was not effective in some cases (like serial
killer Ed Kemper).
- CRC (California Rehab Center) and other specialized institutions to deal
with root problems.
- Dr. Samuel Yochelson: criminal psychologist; current classical view.
Originally of the Positive school. Wrote 3-volume The Criminal
Personality. Awarded grant for 15-year study of violent criminals at
St. Elizabeth's Hospital (D.C.). Found that "half the criminals came from
stable homes ... their siblings often led very respectable lives." In
talking to the violent criminals, Yochelson stopped using open-ended
questions; told them they were criminals (none of them believed that they
were [?!]). Described to the criminals what a responsible life is like and
the widening circles of the effect of what they do. Because of his study,
Yochelson switched to the Classical school and revised his books to
express his conclusion that "crime is not related to being mentally ill.
The criminal is not sick but prefers a life of crime." Yochelson's 4 axioms:
- Man can choose.
- Man can will.
- It's important to take a moral inventory at the end of each day.
- A system of deterrents can correct a criminal's old thought patterns.
- Positive school became seen as 'excusing' behavior on the basis of Freudian
psychology. [Comment: very little in Freudian psychology is valid,
according to modern research by psychologists. JZ.]
- Daniel Glasser's Reality Therapy became popular in 1970s. It was used only on
patients that wanted to change. Patient and therapist jointly figured out
(1) the patient's goals and (2) small weekly behavioral contracts that
inch the patient toward a larger goal (e.g. a romantic relationship).
- Dr. Stanley Samenow: criminal psychologist; current classical view; authored Inside
the Criminal Mind (1984, 1998). "If crime is a series of choices
(which I am convinced it is) then it's possible to make a series of choices
to change, given the right situation. The question is '[under] what
conditions?'" Wants criminals to carry image of themselves as victimizers
for the rest of their lives.
- Half the genes in your body are active in the brain.
Feb 16th, 2006: Positive school.
Biogenic theories. Crime causation theories that focus on physiological factors.
e.g. abnormality on brain wave or higher rate of early childhood illnesses
(which are correlated with brain damage).
Sociogenic theories. 1950s and 1960s.
"Crime is caused by environmental factors."
Community, parents, poverty, criminal role models.
- Psychogenic theories.
"Of the mind." Emotions. Californian inmates have an emotional
maturity of 2.5-3 years of age. Under-developed conscience structure (super
1876: Positive school started by Cesare Lombroso:
- Biological determinism. "Born criminals."
- Criminals are a "sub-species." Recognize them at birth
by physical features. Lower sensitivity to pain. These features don't cause
someone to become a criminal, but enable recognition of criminal type. Severe
social intervention can save them from becoming criminals.
1913: Charles Goring (physical anthropologist):
- Measured 1000s of recidivist prisoners with body calipers. Anthropometrics.
- Compared their data with civilians: no statistical evidence of difference.
1939: Ernest Hooton (Harvard physical anthropologist):
- Compared 107 different measurements on a thousand
prisoners and compared with a much smaller numbers of civilians. Claimed there
was a difference. [No information on randomness of samples, significance of
difference, etc. JZ]
- Concluded crime was direct result of biological
inferiority. Particular types of inferiority lead to particular crime.
Particular races and nationality lead to particular crime. "Environment plays
very little part in the creation of a criminal" but only "accentuates" criminal
- Hooton's research (his methods of data collection and
statistical analysis) was attacked worldwide. Apparently his data did not
convincingly support his conclusions.
1940: William Sheldon (Harvard):
- People fall into three body types: ectomorphs
(thin, withdrawn, introvert, aloof); mesomorphs (muscular and lean; tend
to display aggression and competition); endomorphs (plump, extroverted, jovial).
- Criminals are predominantly mesomorphs (thrill-seekers, hedonists).
1985: Richard Hernstein (with James Q. Wilson) published Crime and the Human Mind,
repeating Sheldon's link of mesomorphs with crime.
Video: Career Criminals (see notes on
Criminal Behavior Videos).
Feb 21st, 2006. Positive school (continued).
1940s: Army study:
- A small portion of army subjects had 3 or 4 sex
chromosomes per body cell instead of standard 2 (XX for F, XY for M).
- Females with XXY were very muscular.
- Males with XYY were hyper-masculine.
1965: Atascadero study for XYY syndrome:
- In general population approx 1-in-10,000 is XYY.
- Of 197 inmates, 7 (almost 4%) were XYY. They averaged
6" taller than other inmates and had especially severe personality disorders.
- 12 in total (6%) had abnormal chromosomes.
1966: Atascadero follow-up study for XYY syndrome:
- Duplicated 1965 findings and found 9 more XYY cases
- None of the XYYs had brain damage, epilepsy, or psychosis.
Most came from nonviolent or stable families. Made crimes of little skill for minimal gain.
- But XYY relates to only 4% of prison population and has dropped out of interest.
Dorothy Otnow Lewis studied 14 of 37 juveniles on Death Row
(pre-Supreme Court decision that juveniles could not be executed):
- The majority had been abused, severe beatings, suicide attempts, hallucinations;
few were epileptic; many had suffered severe accidents injuring CNS.
- Combination of neurological disorder plus abuse ==> development of violent behavior.
1992: Robert Alton Harris executed (on resumption of
- A callous murder of two boys.
- A horrendous childhood.
- Virtually all Death Row inmates have such a history.
Video: In the Genes (see notes on
Criminal Behavior Videos).
Feb 23rd, 2006: Current-day theories from the positive school.
Received Volumes I and II of articles:
- Read articles; tests include questions on them.
- In notebook, summarize the main points.
- Hand in notebook @ midterm for progress report; hand in complete notebook in the
week before the final.
Dr. McCord (neurologist):
Studied juvenile and adult offenders diagnosed with psychopathological personalities.
Showed EEG abnormalities; usually correlated
with increased incidence of brain damage and increased history of disease.
Related e.g. from Scott of his friend with petit mal
(5/day) seizures; in frustration from not fitting into sports etc, began
burglarizing; met (~20 yrs. old) young woman he married who straightened him out.
Biogenetics = biological determinism:
1980s USC article "Hereditary versus environment."
Studied >14K people adopted in Denmark (meticulous adoption records). 40%
had biological fathers with frequent arrests. For adoptees taken at birth,
level of criminality correlated significantly more with biological parents rather than nurturing family.
Identical twins have a more similar crime history than fraternal twins.
Higher crime is associated with lower IQ.
Criminals tend to have slower response to stimuli on skin response test (i.e. an increased pain threshold)
compared to non-criminals.
1960s: Sociogenic theories took off (started 1930s):
1930s: Emile Durkheim. Anomie = "a state of
norm-less-ness being." Reached be a series of frustrations in life.
Unresponsive to the norms of authority figures, peer opinions, state statutes, discipline guidelines.
1938: Robert Merton. "Anomie is a major cause of criminal behavior."
Scott: Kids desire upper-middle class life shown in ads and TV sitcoms.
Ghetto kids lack a sense of legitimate means to achieve; either decrease aspirations or turn to crime.
1960: Lloyd Ohlin and Richard Cloward. Disparity of desires and what's available for conventional goals
--> exploration of 'unconventional alternatives."
Scott: Blvs in Anomie.
Feb 28th, 2006: Psychogenic theories: intellectual, emotional, motivational.
External pressures can lead to:
A creative response; we come out a better person. A wife escapes from a claustrophobic marriage
--> becomes a reentry student. A blind man
--> computer engineer.
Neurotic reactions by developing phobias (agoraphobia, hypochondria, etc) or OCD.
Psychotic behavior, e.g. Sibyl with multiple personalities.
Antisocial reaction, e.g. crime. Likely criminals include abandoned juveniles and
women abandoned from highly dependent relationship. e.g. Ted Bundy (before his execution, he blamed
pornography for his murdering women).
1953: August Aichhorn theory from study of delinquent (and non-delinquent) kids. Delinquents:
Lacked conscience ("superego") partly or entirely.
Sometimes due to bad parenting.
Lack of character (= "doing the right thing when no one is watching you").
Inadequate conscience structure.
Scolding and admonishment no longer work on an
adolescent. Instead they need 24*7 re-education and role modeling.
Scott's example of "Marco" (14 years, 5ft 10"), a bully
from a motherless violent home. Scott tamed Marco by small steps into having Marco play
team sports and become Scott's assistant coach for a year. Successful for one year with Scott.
(But without such a mentor for 2 years, the gain was lost and Marco arrested for larceny.)
Late 1940s, early 1950s: Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck @
Harvard Law School:
- Multifactor approach with prediction scale.
- Compared 500 delinquents with 500 non-delinquents.
- Matched groups by age, ethnicity, IQ, social-economic class.
- Results from social, intellectual, temperamental, & physical factors showed none is predominant.
- "Delinquency could not be blamed on any one set of factors."
March 2nd, 2006: Data.
1940s-1950s, Sheldon and Eleanor Glueck @ Harvard Law School (continued). See Readings Vol. I, #4:
- Delinquency prediction in Boston inner city.
- Kids 5-8 years old rated numerically on 5 scales.
Ratings compared 10 years later with behavior:
- 85% of boys predicted to become delinquent did.
- 97% of boys predicted not to become delinquent did not.
- 19 boys were given 50:50 chance of becoming delinquent; 9 became persistent
offenders and 10 did not.
- In later studies, 90% of persistent offenders and of
non-offenders were found to be identified and predictable retrospectively.
- Roots of delinquency cross socio-economics.
- Parental "discipline with love" as "solution."
Rustiger, "Why Kids Kill". See Readings Vol. I, #2:
- Kids don't value life. Milpitas murders and viewing by
school kids. No kid told a parent, teacher, etc. about the dead body.
- Scott comment: 100% of gang-member parents deny their kids are in a gang.
- Huckabee: "Kids kill because they have not learned to express anger."
- CYA provides the kids (yearned-for) direction, discipline, structure.
- Important for first 6 years.
- Set in concrete by 12 years.
- Early development concerns: physical, social,
emotional, intellectual, and moral aspects. Vary in time to complete. Emotional
values set by puberty. Intellectual values set by 16 years.
- Age window for each physical skill, e.g. balance at
about 4-7 years. You can learn later, but never to the peak you might have
reached. Hand-eye coordination. Gross body movements (butterfly stroke).
- Gender-role socialization occurs prenatally, in
infancy. Affects careers, hobbies, school performance, etc.
"Your child's brain" article:
- See notes on Readings Vol. I.
- Learn: which windows earliest and which
- Head Start now takes kids @ 6-12 months.
March 7th, 2006: Importance of first years of life.
Article on development periods. The more done here in
establishing foundations, the greater the likelihood for future growth:
||Formation of auditory circuits.
- The more disorganized the family in early childhood, the more likely the delinquency.
- Deviancy occurs independent of socio-economic level and
is normally related to the weaknesses of the family as an agent of social
control. "I've never seen one delinquent kid that had good and proper supervision."
- Psychologist Scott Munroe: "None of the [Children Mental Health] Council's kids are untouched
by one or more of neglect, abuse, abandonment, drunk or drugged parents."
- Violence in the home: Bluetts found delinquent kids
came from families with turmoil; a marriage (if any) was in marital discord.
- "Children who see their parents fighting are often
victims of anxiety and depression that can last a lifetime." Such kids have a form of PSD.
- Initially the parents are the only authority figures. When kids see them disrespect each other,
kids develop disrespect for all authority figures. Generalizing.
- Kids overwhelmed by the aggression and violence of an
adult often become that way themselves with the under-developed consciousness
of the psychopath; insensitive towards other people and their effects on them.
Therefore we have to sensitize perpetrators to the effect of their conduct on others.
- Article: "Are you looking out for your kids?"
(1) Make time for the child.
(2) Discipline but not frequent pain.
(3) The home is a refuge from violence, intoxication, sexual display, etc.
(4) Provide a good education.
(5) Be available.
(6) Screen the child's friends, social life, & school progress.
(7) Be honest and lead by example.
(8) Explain and enforce family rules.
(9) Respect your own parents.
(10) Monitor their connections to Internet and TV.
March 9th, 2006: Cause and prevention of antisocial behavior
- Thought by many to result from poorly set limits in the child's youth, overly permissive parenting
(by parents who themselves often had overly permissive parenting).
- Overly permissive parenting --> sense of entitlement.
- "Today too many kids have a tendency to embrace the immediate and the easy
rather than the worthy and the hard."
- A sense of delayed gratification (an index of emotional maturity) should instead be instilled.
Juvenile offenders are mostly at the emotional level of 2-3 years old.
- Teach kids to learn and earn.
- Give kids chores. Making them responsible shows them someone cares. e.g. therapist
for six boy group homes: prior to the home, most of the boys never did a chore; initially the boys
resented the chores, but came to like the responsibility.
- Parents should not be afraid of rebellion and hate from the kids if they set their relationships
and give them chores. "Wise rules and regulations mean safety and security to a child.
It means someone cares about him."
- You don't want an overly compliant kid. It's healthy when they test limits.
Video: Last Resort (see notes on
Criminal Behavior Videos).
March 14th, 2006: Lack of child supervision as a major cause of antisocial behavior.
- Scott Phelps: "I have experienced no delinquent kid that had been properly supervised growing up."
- Having parents present, guiding and serving as role models, is extremely important.
- Anonymous survey said teens that had not experimented with drugs
credited their parents for their supervision.
- Supervision includes monitoring school progress and knowing where they go and who with.
There should not be "too much" control, which can also produce (unspecified)
negative results. As a child matures, parental supervision should decrease.
- At age 13-14 years (i.e., adolescence) a child is susceptible to peer pressure;
especially vulnerable in the absence of adult influence.
- If you instill the right morals in your child, they will make good decisions.
- Kids without supervision prematurely develop too much independence; feel challenged
by authority figures; respond with rebellion and defiance.
- Parenting is like gardening: you have to protect and nurture young plants.
- One cause for the lack of supervision is that too many people are parenting too early,
rather than waiting till mid-20s. [No data was shown for this hypothesis, however. JZ.]
- Parents who are absorbed in their own careers and social lives fail to recognize
their kids' emotional needs. "Emotional downsizing" when the rest of life reduces family time.
- Article on latchkey kids shows that the lack of supervision in the hours after school
is when the majority of drinking, drugging, shoplifting, & fatalities occur.
5000 L.A. 8th-graders had enhanced risk if they were unwatched by adults
for an hour or more a day. Over 40% of under-13-year-olds go home to an empty house.
- Prevention would be so much cheaper than paying for juvenile offenders. 1980s: San Jose citywide
after-school programs cost $30K and were canceled. $300K p.a. for city of Chicago.
Compare with group-home fees of $4K-$10K/month with 24-hour monitoring.
For $6K/month a recreation program would 'do wonders.'
- Matthew Klotzbach (in the spring of 1999, appointed to The United States Naval Academy
class of 2003, killed by a drunk driver on July 29, 2001). His letter to his unborn son
(written as an assignment for his English class) was read aloud.
March 16th, 2006: Families and Fatherhood
- Half of all US kids are in single-parent families. This is new in the last 40 years.
- Predominantly the single parent is the mom.
- In many families with both parents, each parent has a job. Again, this is "new."
[This ignores the historical situation where BOTH parents worked e.g., on farms, as the kids
were usually present with them at their work and even worked with them. JZ.]
- Some kids raise themselves and turn out fine, even in a dysfunctional family, provided
they have a good role model of a surrogate dad and good peer models.
- Any kid in a street gang or juvenile hall or CYA had an absent or incapacitated father,
or even a father that pushed his child into a life of crime.
- Bluetts research (New England): delinquents had no father @ home or a father not engaged/bonded
("less sympathetic in affection") with the child.
- "Where's Daddy" article (see articles at end). "Build more prisons or get fathers
back in the home." Boys learn anger management from an effective father.
- Fatherhood in our societies is not recognized as much as motherhood. e.g. Paternal leave is rare.
- Fathers should be engaged as a friend to his child; sympathetic; affectionate.
- 1999 nation-wide study of 1000s of children --> 71% greater risk of substance abuse
if fathers drank > 2 drinks/day (presumably compared to those taking 2 or fewer drinks/day).
- Anger is a secondary emotion. Need role models to show boys it's ok to express emotion
instead of taking it out on the community and for girls to express emotion instead of
self-inflicting damage (cutting, suicide attempts, etc).
- What hurts a child @ 7 years becomes visible when a teenager.
- Peer court. Run by probation dept: a juvenile pleading guilty to a criminal act (misdemeanor)
has an option to be sentenced by a juvenile court judge or their peers;
kids read police reports, get courts to subpoena witnesses, act as defense
or prosecution attorneys, clerk of court.
- "Dads really matter:" a child's 4 great hungers (normally not communicated):
- Your involvement. "Dad, please be there for me
... be involved in my life."
"Please let me feel your love and your approval."
"Dad, please help me be someone that I know I can't be on my own." Help me to
control myself. Put boundaries in there that make me feel safe and so secure.
"Dad, please help me to stand on my own." "Believe in me enough to let me go,
to let me fail some, to let me be on my own team even when I blow it."
March 21st, 2006: Need for communication within the family
- Kids need a supportive net for non-judgmental advice. A
sharing environment of family solidarity, unconditional love.
- Students with high PSAT scores had no commonality of a
dozen attributes except for: A daily non-interrupted hour of shared time with their family.
- A daily, shared mealtime increases the stability of marriage.
- Tips for happy mealtimes: positive communications; involve kids in meal preparation;
schedule for a time when everyone can be there; don't turn meals into an etiquette drill;
make conversation (not eating) the focus of the meal.
- John Wooden, UCLA college basketball coach ("Pyramid of success") said:
- "The purpose of discipline is not to punish but to correct."
- "Discipline yourselves and others won't need to."
- "The greatest thing a father can do for his children is to love their mother."
- Three factors of effective deterrence:
- Immediacy: deterrence appears at the time of (or close to) the unwanted action.
- Certainty: when someone commits an offense, they have to be reasonably certain there
will be repercussions. Not so in California: 10 capital offenses per day; only 1 or 2 executions/year.
- Severity: Punishment must be distasteful enough to you.
Not so with $5 fine in Nevada for exceeding 55 mph speed limit.
- Contrast US's lack the deterrence factors for drunk driving with the factors in Scandinavia:
immediate blood test and hearing with a judge; non-guilty plea gets a jury trial within a week;
automatic license loss 1-2 years and jail time (30 days 1st time; more for repeat offense);
fined a month's pay for drunkenness.
- Bluetts: Delinquents from homes where discipline was
either overtly harsh or overly permissive and inconsistent. Therefore
discipline should be consistent and moderate.
March 23rd, 2006: Discipline.
- Bluetts: "Inconsistent discipline frequently leads to
anxiety and rebellion in teenage years."
- Need I-C-S: Immediacy, Certainty, Severity.
- Aversion to a behavior is built up faster by immediacy
than delay. e.g. China's immediate trial, sentencing, execution of 3 ministered
accused of taking bribes.
- Discipline with "I" (not blaming and confrontational
- Attack the behavior not the person. Describe the
effect. "The way you are acting is really upsetting and frustrating to me."
It's less judgmental and more dignified. "I see your room is a mess and things
are all over the place." "I feel like ..." "That hurt me when ..." "The sounds
sarcastic. Was it intended to be?"
- Alternate punishments:
- Take away something meaningful. e.g. phone privileges (especially for girl) or
access to the outside by quarantine in room.
- BUT don't take sports away from a kid, especially team sports.
- Deny privilege for no more than 2 weeks (punishment loses effectiveness if it lasts longer).
- Beware of creating conflicting parental roles.
- For a major transgression, parents should come up with a plan and present a united front.
- For a minor transgression, the parent that witnesses the transgression is to administer the discipline.
Video: Failing to learn, learning to fail (see notes on
Criminal Behavior Videos).
March 28th, 2006: Discipline (continued).
- Remediated = Diagnosed and treated.
- Unremediated = either not diagnosed or not dealt with
after diagnosis. Most kids with unremediated disability:
- Will fail in school.
- Get acceptance by becoming a bully or being the class clown.
- Eventually drop out. If drop out prior to 16 years, 5/7 chance of ending in juvenile institution.
- Common types of learning disability:
- Verbal and non-verbal abstract reasoning. Inability to understand cause-effect
relationship. Fail to see "sequencing" and therefore make bad choices.
- Poor eyesight or hearing.
- ADHA (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder). 50% of kids
outgrown ADHD. Many adults with ADHA can function and are helped by reassurance
and counseling to improve organizational abilities. Dr. David Comings
(Director, Center for Behavioral Studies, City of Hope) estimates over 50% of adult
prison population has ADHD. Adults that have not overcome their ADHD tend to be
in prison, on welfare, unemployed, in divorce courts; commonly alcoholic or drug using.
- Inability to learn from past experience.
- Easily distractible and unable to concentrate.
- Information scrambling going into and/or coming out of the
brain, e.g. dyslexia, where letters are recognized and/or written backwards.
- Brain damage such as collisions or bike accidents. Scar tissue develops in the brain.
- Causes of learning disability:
- 40% inherited.
- Every other known source is poverty-related: Malnutrition; improper prenatal and
postnatal care (including fetal alcohol syndrome and crack babies); head
injuries (fissures in the brain; scar tissue grows back).
- Parental interest in kid's education. 95% of kids that are way above their grade level
have a parent come to see how the kids are taught. But only 10% of kids way
below grade level have a parent come.
March 30th, 2006: Child abuse.
- Child abuse is in b.g. of almost every delinquent.
- C.Y.A. reports >90% of their kids are victims of one or more forms of child abuse.
Oprah Winfrey Video: Scared Silent (see notes on
Criminal Behavior Videos).
April 4th, 2006: Child abuse (continued).
Notes based on those of Krystle Corkrean.
- 95% kids in CYA have been abused (phys, verbal, sexual, or combo).
- CAPP (Child Abuse Preventive Program): 1-in-3 girls & 1-in-7 boys sexually abused
before 18th birthday.
- 70-80% of sexual abusers were sexually abused as kids.
- 75-95% of child abuse by trusted known person.
- 60% of sexually assaulted children assaulted in victim's or offender's home.
Often the kid's bedroom, bed. Tells the child nowhere is safe; the people you love will hurt you.
Kids put up with a lot to stay with their family.
- The family and the world punish the victim. The victim "deserves" it. Carry guilt, esp. girls.
- Victim dissociates during much abuse. This limits prosecution options as well as therapy:
the victim can't "return to the scene of the act" because of dissociation.
- Abused child feels unworthy of love; does what the abuser wants.
- Widespread effects in the lives of the abused: suicide
attempts; violence toward animals and smaller children; to escape feeling
victimized and to feel in control, become abusers themselves; confused ideas of
love and sex, leading to sexual promiscuity & early teenage pregnancy; 80%
prostitutes were sexually abused; 90% multiple-personalities were sexually
- Therapy for victims: build up self-esteem; empower to make right choices; redirect blame.
Video: Breaking the Silence (see notes on
Criminal Behavior Videos).
April 6th, 2006: Physical abuse, psychological abuse, child neglect.
- Usually accompanied by psychological abuse: put-downs.
Kid's world = family; kids endure anything to keep world together.
- FBI Journal article.
- 200M kids burned p.a.
- 2nd most freq cause accidental death 1-4 year-olds.
- >70% childhood burns occur in the home @ stressful time of day for kids (first
waking and late afternoon when hungry and fatigued) in stressful time of year
(winter; cabin fever; low vit D & endorphins).
- Ave age abused burn victim < 24 mos.
- Males burned > females.
- Searing pain, disfigurement, psych scarring.
- Burn suspicion index of 10 factors that can be id'd by ER: unexplained delay > 2
hours in Tx; old burns; isolated burns on child's buttocks; ambivalence abt
seekg med attn; no witness to incident; non-parent brings child to ER.
- SJPD experiences: arm in boiling water; hand on red-hot stove ring; baby (died) put in clothes drier.
- Effects possible: overly compliant; speech defect; fear of failure; tries too hard to please.
Or tremendous aggression.
- Cycle of violence: "The fact is, you are only as good as your teacher".
- Tell kids how stupid s/he is, can't follow directions, hasn't got a brain.
- Kids give up with overly critical parents and too high expectations.
- Depression; other emotional problems; turmoil.
- Overly compliant.
- Acting out. Behavior problems.
- Home often leaves the child unsupervised in a chaotic and dirty environment. Animals often loose.
Feces and urine on floor. Fridge empty. Waste spoiling food fragments.
- Inappropriately dressed for temperature of the day.
- Always hungry.
- Always sleepy. Little kids need 10 hours or more.
- Lacking social skills; may be v. aggressive when alert.
- May be dirty.