Foundations of Western Civilization Timeline.

Timeline of Foundations of Western Civilization:
Based on Lectures by Thomas F.X. Nobel.

See also lectures by Thomas F.X. Nobel from the Teaching Company:

3,500-3,000 B.C.E.
Emergence of civilizations in Mesopotamia and Egypt. Cities and writing develop.

3,000-2,000 B.C.E.
Consolidation of political power in Sumer. Old Kingdom in Egypt. Akkadians conquer Sumer.

2,000-1,500 B.C.E.
Egyptian Middle Kingdom. Ascension of Hittites. Height of Minoan civilization (Crete).

1,500-1,000 B.C.E.
Egyptian New Kingdom. Egyptians fight Hittites in several wars.

Myceneans conquer Minoans; Trojan Wars (probably trade disputes).

Invasion of Palestine by 'sea peoples.' Exodus of Hebrews from Egypt.

1,000 B.C.E.
Iron age reaches Central Italy.

1,000-500 B.C.E.
Creation of Phoenician trading networks and colonies.

Assyria rises and falls.

Neo-Babylonian kingdom rises and falls.

Hebrew kingdoms rise, divide, and fall.

Persia emerges.

Greek Dark Ages and Archaic period; 'Homer' writes down the oral epic poems of Iliad and Odyssey. Greek colonization. Emergence of the polis.

753 B.C.E.
Founding of the city of Rome.

752-509 B.C.E.
Monarchical period of Rome.

509 B.C.E.
Traditionally, expulsion by the Romans of their last Etruscan king, Tarquin the Proud.
Traditional date for the founding of the Roman Republic.

500-350 B.C.E.
Classical age of Greece:

449 B.C.E.
Twelve Tables bearing laws were erected in the Roman forum.

436-338 B.C.E.
Isocrates promoted the idea of a united Greece under Athens and Sparta. When that failed, he promoted union under Philip of Macedon.

429-347 B.C.E.

385 B.C.E.
Approximate date when Plato founds his school, the Academy.

384-322 B.C.E.
Demosthenes (same birth and death years), a great orator, promoted the autonomy of the polis and he saw Macedon as a threat to Greek liberty.

382-336 B.C.E.
Philip II of Macedonia, who took control of Greece.

356-323 B.C.E.
Alexander the Great, who took control of the Persian Empire.

323-31 B.C.E.
Hellenistic Era: from the death of Alexander the Great to the Roman dominance:

338 B.C.E.
Philip's decisive victory over the Greeks.

335 B.C.E.
Aristotle founds his school, the Lyceum in Athens.

323 B.C.E.
Death of Alexander the Great.

287 B.C.E.
Licinian-Sextian laws "granted the legislation of the plebian assemply full binding power on all the Roman people".

264-241 B.C.E.
First Punic War between Rome and Carthage (an old Phoenician colony). Rome then annexed Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica.

234-149 B.C.E.
Cato the Elder.

218-201 B.C.E.
Second Punic War between Rome and Carthage.

204 B.C.E.
Rome took the Second Punic War to Carthage when Scipio invaded North Africa.

199-197 B.C.E.
Rome's War in the Balkans against Macedon.

171-167 B.C.E.
Rome's War in the Balkans against Greek cities and leagues.

149-146 B.C.E.
Third Punic War between Rome and Carthage.

150-146 B.C.E.
Rome's further War in the Balkans against Greek cities and leagues.

146 B.C.E.
Rome has annexed Carthage and Greece.

133 B.C.E.
Death of Tiberius Gracchus, murdered in "the first instance of political bloodshed in Rome".

121 B.C.E.
Death of Gaius Gracchus.

106-48 B.C.E.

106-43 B.C.E.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (political writings and forensic speeches).

100-44 B.C.E.
Julius Caesar.

84-54 B.C.E.
Catullus (emulated Greek poets; themes of love).

70 B.C.E. - 19 C.E.

65-8 B.C.E.

59 B.C.E. - 17 C.E.

43 B.C.E. - 18 C.E.

31 B.C.E. - 14 C.E.

27-25 B.C.E.
Roman Pantheon built, using an arched roof.

4 B.C.E. - 65 C.E.
Seneca (the Stoic).

14-68 C.E.
Rome ruled by members of Julio-Claudian family.

35 B.C.E. - 100 C.E.
Quintillian (rhetorician).

Martial (satirist).

55-117 (approximately)

Juvenal (satirist).

Year of civil war for Rome.

70-140 (approximately)

Pax Romana under the series of Rome's "Five Good Emperors".

Rule of Nerva, the 1st of Rome's "Five Good Emperors".

Rule of Trajan, the 2nd of Rome's "Five Good Emperors".

Rule of Hadrian, the 3rd of Rome's "Five Good Emperors".

Lucian (satirist).

Rule of Antonius Pius, the 4th of Rome's "Five Good Emperors".

Rule of Marcus Aurelius, the 5th of Rome's "Five Good Emperors".


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